Phases and facilities
Sakhalin-1's Chayvo, Odoptu, and Arkutun Dagi license blocks, located off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East, are being developed using a phased approach
Phases and facilities
The Chayvo field was initially developed using both onshore (Yastreb) and offshore (Orlan) drilling facilities.While the Orlan platform has been in continuous operation there, the Yastreb drilling rig was dismantled and moved to the Odoptu field in July 2008. After successfully completing the Odoptu First Stage Production drilling program in February 2011, the Yastreb is currently being relocated back to Chayvo to resume development of the field.
Onshore Yastreb rig
The Yastreb rig was engineered exclusively for Sakhalin-1 and is one of the most powerful land rigs in the industry. It is designed to drill extended reach wells to offshore targets from land-based locations.
Extended reach drilling (ERD) technology reduces the high capital and operating costs of large offshore structures while minimizing environmental impact to sensitive near shore areas.
The initial drilling program at Chayvo was completed in 2008 with a total of 20 ERD wells drilled, setting world records in depth, horizontal reach and drilling speed.
The Yastreb was then dismantled, modified and transported to the Odoptu field where it was utilized in yet another world record setting drilling program from May 2009 to February 2011.
In March 2011, workers began once again dismantling and transporting the Yastreb rig back to the Chayvo field where it is scheduled to resume drilling operations in early 2012.
Offshore Orlan platform
The Orlan platform is being used to develop the southwestern flank of the main Chayvo zone from offshore. This reinforced-concrete substructure can easily withstand pressure from gigantic ice ridges that can reach as high as a six story building.
Installation of the Orlan platform was completed in July 2005 and drilling operations commenced in December 2005. Offshore processing facilities are minimal, with a full well stream sent to shore for further processing at the Chayvo Onshore Processing Facility.
Drilling operations on the Orlan platform were completed with a total of 21 wells drilled. Most of the Orlan wells are in the 5.5 kilometer range, with the longest well drilled measuring 7.5 kilometers long.
Onshore processing facility
Oil and gas produced from the Sakhalin-1 fields is transported to the Chayvo Onshore Processing Facility (OPF), which stabilizes oil for shipment to the international market and gas for supply to the Russian domestic market or reinjection to the field to maintain reservoir pressure.
The OPF's capacity is approximately 34,000 metric tons (250,000 barrels) of oil and 22.4 million cubic meters (800 million cubic feet) of gas per day.
To construct the OPF a modular approach was used, which helped cut costs significantly and saved at least 18 months of construction time. In less than three years the OPF team had fabricated 36 modules weighing a total of some 40,000 tons, completed two major sea-lifts and off-loads at Chayvo, hooked up the modules and completed plant commissioning and startup.
Sakhalin-1's oil transportation system was commissioned in August 2006. Construction was completed on a 230 kilometer (143 mile) pipeline to transport crude from the onshore processing facility across Sakhalin Island and the Tatar Strait to the De-Kastri Terminal in Russia's Khabarovsk Krai. Tanker loading operations began at De-Kastri in September 2006.
Chayvo phase 2
Future project plans call for the expanded development of Chayvo natural gas resources that are not associated with current oil production.
These development plans will require the drilling of additional gas wells and the expansion of existing onshore and offshore facilities.
This project would allow for expanded gas sales to domestic and export markets.
The Odoptu Field is located 70 kilometers north of Chayvo and began production in 2010. Odoptu is geologically different from other fields and thus demanded changes to the drilling process. The Yastreb rig involved in Odoptu Stage 1 development was upgraded in preparation for the project.
The Odoptu oil pool is not as deep as Chayvo (by 800 meters) and is located closer to the surface. The angle buildup must be sharper in Odoptu wells. The greater the drill string bending angle, the higher the power requirement for rotation.
The Yastreb top drive was replaced by a drive with a higher torque and the cooling system was upgraded from an air-based to a water-based system in order to ensure efficient operations. The derrick height was increased accordingly by 3 meters.
Yastreb drilled a total of nine wells during Odoptu Stage 1 and set several world records in the process. Upon completion of the drilling operations at Odoptu, Yastreb was decommissioned and returned to Chayvo.
The full-scale operations in Piltun Bay began in 2016, but preliminary development activities for Odoptu Stage 2 began in advance.
The Modular Strategy was successfully implemented earlier for the construction of the Chayvo facility. It included the assembly of process equipment into huge modules at the construction yard followed by delivery to Sakhalin by sea for final adjustment and installation as an integrated production facility. This efficient strategy was also used during the Odoptu Stage 2 Development Project. In addition to the production facilities, oversized structural units of the new Krechet drilling rig were delivered to Sakhalin in a similar way. The total weight of the delivered modules exceeded 22,000 tons. During the ice-free periods of 2016 and 2017, huge ocean-going barges made 18 trips in order to complete the project.
Odoptu Stage 2 entered the production phase in December 2017 and doubled the facility’s capacity, allowing production to reach 60 thousand barrels per day. In the future, Krechet, a drilling rig similar to Yastreb but with a number of modifications to improve safety and efficiency, will be used to drill 33 more wells at the Odoptu North and Odoptu South well sites.
Arkutun-Dagi is the most remote field of the Sakhalin-1 Project. For this reason, the Berkut offshore platform was installed to develop Arkutun-Dagi. Commercial production began 2015. Berkut is the largest offshore platform in Russia and when Berkut reaches full design capacity, production will total 4.5 million tons per year.
Berkut is the largest oil and gas platform in Russia. It is located approximately 25 kilometers from shore at a water depth of about 35 meters.
Berkut weighs 200,000 tons and towers almost 130 meters above the sea. The platform topsides weigh about 42,000 tons and consist of several levels, each with an area comparable to a soccer field. The levels house process and accommodation modules, a drilling rig, auxiliary equipment and more. At the time of installation, it was the heaviest integrated structure for offshore platforms ever installed in the open sea by float-over.
The platform topsides rest on the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) with only four legs visible above the sea surface, but the base looks more like a huge stool turned upside down, with the legs turned upward and the base resting on a prepared area of the sea floor. The reinforced concrete base was manufactured in Primorsky Krai on the docks of the Vostochny Port near Nakhodka. 90% of the construction materials required to build the 160,000 ton base of the platform were procured from Russian suppliers. Concrete and reinforcements were supplied from manufacturing plants in the Far East. Inside Berkut’ s base are countless pipes, utility lines, valves, and cables that assist in the functionality of the gigantic structure.
Berkut, like Orlan, was created to operate under the harsh winter conditions of the region. The massive GBS is resistant to earthquakes, withstands waves up to 18 meters, ice up to 2 meters thick and extreme temperatures as low as -44°C. Pendulum supports reduce the dynamic impact of seismic vibrations on the platform and are located between the base and the topsides.
A subsea flowline allows the oil and gas produced from Berkut to reach the Chayvo Onshore Processing Facility.
Far East LNG
The Project will include expanding existing Sakhalin-1 Project facilities. The Chayvo OPF will be expanded by adding gas dehydration treatment and compression facilities. Yatreb will drill a new set of wells to develop non-associated gas. A new gas pipeline will be constructed from Chayvo OPF to De-Katri in the existing pipeline corridor, and a new LNG plant will be built near the Sakhalin-1 De-Kastri oil export terminal in Khabarovsk Krai, leveraging logistical synergies and the marine infrastructure we have in place
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