The Chayvo field was initially developed using both onshore (Yastreb) and offshore (Orlan) drilling facilities. While the Orlan platform has been in continuous operation there, the Yastreb drilling rig was dismantled and moved to the Odoptu field in July 2008. After successfully completing the Odoptu First Stage Production drilling program in February 2011, the Yastreb is currently being relocated back to Chayvo to resume development of the field.
Onshore Yastreb rig
The Yastreb rig was engineered exclusively for Sakhalin-1 and is one of the most powerful land rigs in the industry. It is designed to drill extended reach wells to offshore targets from land-based locations.
Extended reach drilling (ERD) technology reduces the high capital and operating costs of large offshore structures while minimizing environmental impact to sensitive near shore areas.
The initial drilling program at Chayvo was completed in 2008 with a total of 20 ERD wells drilled, setting world records in depth, horizontal reach and drilling speed.
The Yastreb was then dismantled, modified and transported to the Odotpu field where it was utilized in yet another world record setting drilling program from May 2009 to February 2011.
In March 2011, workers began once again dismantling and transporting the Yastreb rig back to the Chayvo field where it is scheduled to resume drilling operations in early 2012.
Offshore Orlan platform
The Orlan platform is being used to develop the southwestern flank of the main Chayvo zone from offshore. This reinforced-concrete substructure can easily withstand pressure from gigantic ice ridges that can reach as high as a six story building.
Installation of the Orlan platform was completed in July 2005 and drilling operations commenced in December 2005. Offshore processing facilities are minimal, with a full well stream sent to shore for further processing at the Chayvo Onshore Processing Facility.
Drilling operations on the Orlan platform were completed with a total of 21 wells drilled. Most of the Orlan wells are in the 5.5 kilometer range, with the longest well drilled measuring 7.5 kilometers long.
Onshore processing facility
Oil and gas produced from the Sakhalin-1 fields is transported to the Chayvo Onshore Processing Facility (OPF), which stabilizes oil for shipment to the international market and gas for supply to the Russian domestic market or reinjection to the field to maintain reservoir pressure.
The OPF's capacity is approximately 34,000 metric tons (250,000 barrels) of oil and 22.4 million cubic meters (800 million cubic feet) of gas per day.
To construct the OPF a modular approach was used, which helped cut costs significantly and saved at least 18 months of construction time. In less than three years the OPF team had fabricated 36 modules weighing a total of some 40,000 tons, completed two major sea-lifts and off-loads at Chayvo, hooked up the modules and completed plant commissioning and startup.
Oil transportation system
Sakhalin-1's oil transportation system was commissioned in August 2006. Construction was completed on a 226 kilometer (140 mile) pipeline to transport crude from the onshore processing facility across Sakhalin Island and the Tatar Strait to the De-Kastri Terminal in Russia's Khabarovsk Krai. Tanker loading operations began at De-Kastri in September 2006.
The De-Kastri Terminal includes two 100,000 cubic meters (650,000 barrel) capacity storage tanks to hold the Sakhalin-1 crude oil prior to tanker transfer and shipment. Then the crude is transported via a sub-sea loading line to the single point mooring facility, which is located 5.7 kilometers east of the Klykov Peninsula in Chikhacheva Bay.
A dedicated fleet of double-hulled Aframax-class tankers carrying up to 100,000 tons (720,000 barrels) of crude is used for export of crude oil from the De-Kastri Terminal to world markets. Sakhalin-1 was the first project to successfully operate tankers year-round in the sub-arctic conditions of Russia's Far East.
In November 2009, the De-Kastri Terminal was named Terminal of the Year 2009 at the Oil Terminal Conference in St. Petersburg. This prestigious award was voted on by top industry experts and government officials and granted to the international terminal achieving the best results in terms of the efficiency of its operations in such areas as: economics, environmental, and social.
As of July 2011, the Sakhalin-1 Consortium has uploaded over 400 tankers from the De-Kastri Terminal without a single offshore spill incident.
Chayvo phase 2
Future project plans call for the expanded development of Chayvo natural gas resources that are not associated with current oil production.
These development plans will require the drilling of additional gas wells and the expansion of existing onshore and offshore facilities.
This project would allow for expanded gas sales to domestic and export markets.